Letter to Cassandra Monday 21-Wed. 23 January 1799 — “What time in March may we expect your return in?”

Jane Austen writes again to her older sister Cassandra, who remains away visiting their brother Edward in Kent.  Per the notes, there is a letter missing here in her correspondence.  Austen though seems to be continuing an apology for an empty sheet/requiring the postage being paid for blank paper from previous letters earlier in January and perhaps the missing letter from before this one, was rather on the shorter side, because she writes joking about the charge from the local postmaster: “I will endeavour to make this letter more worthy your acceptance than my last, which was so shabby a one I think Mr. Marshall could never charge you with postage.”  (Austen’s own spelling.)

Austen then relays that her eyes are improving from her previous illness and gives an update on their brother Charles and his naval commissions, and his plans to travel to recently arrived and docked ship, “The Tamar,” which did not exactly work out.  Austen in fact sounded like she was a bit frustrated about scheduling: “I want to go with him, that I may explain the country to him properly between Canterbury and Rowling, but the unpleasantness of returning by myself deters me.”

The relaying a little bit of gossip and/or another’ lady’s opinion of the Austen men: “Martha writes me word that Charles was very much admired at Kintbury, and Mrs. Lefroy never saw anyone so much improved in her life, and thinks him handsomer than Henry.”

Austen adds on her own comments about their brother Charles: “He appears to far more advantage here than he did at Godmersham, not surrounded by strangers and neither oppressed by a pain in his face or powder in his hair.”  Austen leaves off and goes onto other subjects, but later will return to the change in Charles’ appearance.

She then includes an update family news via letter received by Mrs. Austen from their cousin Edward Cooper, details a new living and a move to Staffordshire including a good amount of Austen’s wicked wit:  “Staffordshire is a good way off; so we shall see nothing more of them till, some fifteen years hence, the Miss Coopers are presented to us, fine, jolly, handsome, ignorant girls.”  Austen then specifies the amount of the living before again summing up, and somewhat teasingly adding: “Our first cousins seem all dropping off very fast.”

Austen then jumps from family to neighborhood social news, “Our ball on Thursday was a very poor one, only eight couple and but twenty-three people in the room; but it was not the ball’s fault, for we were deprived of two or three families by the sudden illness of their neighbor Mr. Wither, who was seized that morning at Winchester with a return of his former alarming complaint.”

Continues to update Cassandra with a run down of the smaller ball and her dancing partners, as well as an update for Mr. Withers who had fallen ill: “In such a disorder his danger, I suppose, must always be great; but from this attack he is now rapidly recovering, and will be well enough to return to Manydown.”  As well as a bit of a report on their sister: “Mary behaved very well, and was not at all fidgety.  For the history of her adventures at the ball I refer you to Anna’s letter.”

Austen then shifts back to their brother Charles and apparently outfitting him for his new post, then pausing to note: “Tuesday.–Your letter has pleased and amused me very much.  Your essay on happy fortnights is highly ingenious, and the talobert skin made laugh a good deal.”

Readers here are left out of the loop.  There is no way to know what Cassandra wrote about a “happy fortnight” or two weeks, and the notes presume “talobert” is either a misreading of rabbit skin or a in-family joke.

Also in response to Cassandra’s recent letter, Austen provides a mom update: “It began to occur to me before you mentioned it that I had been somewhat silent as to my mother’s health for some time, but I thought you could have no difficultly in divining its exact state–you, who have guessed so much stranger things.”

From the tone, seems Austen’s patience with her mother’s complaints are wearing a bit thin: “She is tolerably well–better upon the whole than she was some weeks ago.  She would tell you herself that she has a very dreadful cold in her head at present; but I have not much compassion for colds in the head without fever or sore throat.”

The it’s back to domestic business, with a reference to Charles “Our own particular little brother,” resuming his travel plans and per the notes a joke and/or reference to Burney’s novel Camilla.  Before happily delegating to Cassandra, purchasing clothes while away in Kent: “I have no objection at all to your buying our gowns there, as your imagination has pictured to you exactly such a one as is necessary to make me happy.”   Austen also praises Cassandra, “You quite abash me by your progress in notting, I am still without silk.”  Per the notes, “notting” is most likely a misreading of “netting,” which was a fashionable at the time, and a process often used on clothing and accessories, and per the notes, Austen referenced netting in her novels: Northanger Abbey and Pride and Prejudice.

Here, Austen returns to the recent changes in their brother Charles’ appearance.  Per the notes, apparently he cut his hair, as Austen refers to him as a “crop.”  In addition, the fashion of the cropped hair and losing the wigs, was it appears, a bit of a touchy subject between the siblings: “I thought Edward would not approve of Charles being a crop, and rather wished you to conceal it from him at present, lest it might fall on his sports and retard his recovery.”

Although it is difficult to know, but it definitely seems like Austen is asking for a sisterly confidence here.  Again missing letters perhaps hold the key, but apparently Edward was ill, and from afar their brother Edward (the wealthly brother), may have been upset by these changes in Charles, even if it wasn’t politically motivated.  Per the notes, “a new fashion for young men, and viewed with some disapproval since it might imply sympathy with the fashions of Republican France.”

This letter then turns to domestic talk of animals and food provisions, as well as another update on a neighborhood marriage announcement, before Austen implores her sister:  “What time in March may we expect your return in?  I begin to be very tired of answering people’s questions on the subject, and, independent of that, I shall be very glad to see you home again, and then if we can get Martha and shirk … … who will be so happy as we?”  Presuming that “Martha” is their friend Martha Lloyd — rest though a mystery.  Per the notes, it’s unclear if Cassandra or another relative struck this out, regarding Austen’s plans: “I think of going to Ilbthorop in”

But this is left as a fragment, for Austen continues noting: “Wednesday, 23rd.”  With birthday wishes to her niece: “I wish my dear Fanny many returns of this day, and receiving from her doll’s beds.”

And Austen closes this letter a final update about their brother: “I have just heard from Charles, who is by this time at Deal.  He is to be Second Lieutenant, which pleases him likewise.”  Apparently, there was a change in ship assignment as well: “He expects to be ordered to Sheerness shortly, as the ‘Tamar’ has never been refitted.”

All notes/cites to: Jane Austen’s Letters, collected and edited by Deidre Le Fay, Oxford University Press, 4th edition, 2011.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Letter to Cassandra Tues. Jan. 8 — Thurs. January 9, 1799. Who is “he” and why did he want to throw her fan in the River?

For some time, before the invention of the telephone, and even long distance calling, there was something wonderful about receiving a long, newsy letter.  This moment in time has long disappeared, although it made a brief reoccurrence in the 1990’s, with the advent of email or electronic mail, when it first became a mode of communication.  Before spam, chain email, scams, phishing — many people would check their accounts hoping for a long, newsy letter via this electronic format, from people that lived far enough away that long distance calling was not possible or very infrequent.  But eventually technology in the other forms primarily social media and the invention of the cell phone soon to be the smart phone took that all away.

Here hundreds of years before the word “electronic” — Jane Austen is writing from her home in Steventon writes her older sister Cassandra visiting their brother in Kent, a post-Christmas letter full of early January news, although per the notes, this letter follows one missing in the collection of her correspondence.  Through the letter Austen states that she is feeling pretty ill, and in print documents, initially debates turning the letter over to their Mother to finish writing out for her.

This correspondence begins with Jane thanking her older sister for her latest letter, admiring her writing, “You must read your letters over five times in the future before you send them, & then perhaps you may find them as entertaining as I do.–I laughed at several parts of the one which I am now answering.”  Again, this makes me long for Cassandra’s letters to read her side of their correspondence.” (Underline emphasis is Austen’s own.)

Austen starts this letter stating their brother Charles, with a worry because of an upcoming ball: “The Ball at Kempshott is this Evening, & I have got him an invitation, though I have not been so considerate as to get him a Partner.” (Underline emphasis is Austen’s own.)  This continues with some sister discussion of a possible love interest, “But the cases are different between him & Eliza Bailey, for he is not a dieing way, & therefore may be equal to getting a partner for himself.”  (Spelling is Austen’s own.)

Austen acknowledges relaying a previous incorrect date for the ball and is full on pushing back with her wicked wit: “Elizabeth is very cruel about my writing Music;–& as a punishment for her, I should insist upon always writing out all hers for her in the future, if I were not punishing myself at the same time.”

Which diverts into a comment about their brother Edward, “I am tolerably glad to hear of Edward’s income is so good a one–as glad as I can at anybody’s being rich besides You & me–& I am thoroughly rejoiced to here of his present to you.”  Austen seems to be happy to hear Edward made some sort of a monetary gift to her older sister, then discusses her attire for the ball and other wardrobe issues, which includes a “Mamlouc cap,” which per the notes, was very much Egyptian inspired fashion of the time.

The next item she tackled was an upcoming visit to their Cooke cousins, which again per the notes, Cassandra may have censored to protect these relatives from the harsh if not wicked wit, “I assure You that I dread the idea of going to Bookham as much as you can do; but I am not without hopes that something may happen to prevent it, Theo’ has lost his Election at Baliol, & perhaps they may not be able to see company for some time.–They talk of going to Bath too in the Spring, & perhaps they may be overturned in their way down, & all laid up for the summer.”

Here, Austen notes, “I have had a cold & weakness in one of my eyes for some days, which makes Writing neither very pleasant nor profitable & which will probably prevent my finishing this letter myself.–My Mother has undertaken to do it for me, & I shall leave the Kempshott Ball for her.”

Austen continues joking in writing about the Wither family: “Mary grows rather more reasonable about her Child’s beauty, & says that she does not think him really handsome; but I suspect her moderation to be something like that of W-W-‘s Mama.”  Per the notes, a descendent of the Wither family stated via F. Awry, A Country Gentleman of the Nineteenth Century, “‘It was a custom of the Wither clan to fuss and talk a great [deal] about bad health.'”  So Cassandra, knowing the Withers, was well in on the joke.

Austen then describes the attendance at the event, “Catherine has the honour of giving her name to a set, which will be composed of two Withers, two Heathcotes, a Blackford, & no Bigg except herself.”  (Spelling is Austen’s own.) Per the notes, Austen again is writing a bit of an inside joke with writing about “the set” for her sister about the house party in naming everyone as Catherine is technically the only Bigg, her father and brother were Bigg-Wither and her married sister the Heathcote.

Austen then reacts very pleasantly, presumably of Cassandra writing about their nephew, “My sweet little George!–I am delighted to hear that he has such an inventive Genius as to face-making.”   Apparently, their nephew was inventive using the sealing wax, “I admire his yellow wafer very much, & I hope he will chuse the wafer for your next letter.”  (Spelling is Austen’s own.)

Now there is a brief return to wardrobe or is there? “I wore my Green shoes last night & took my white fan with me: I am very glad he never threw it into the River.”  Going to pause here for a moment, as fans were often used for communication and flirting, that doesn’t puzzle me — but sounds like there is more to the story here.  Who is he, and how did he get Jane Austen’s fan?  Did she give it to him?  Was it a joke gone wrong or an argument of some sort?  Questions remain, but Cassandra is in the know and sadly we are not and there is nothing in the notes about it.

Austen does not dwell here, presumably she continues writing with Cassandra’s understanding of the fan and river reference, and revisits the subject of their brother Edward again, and Mrs. Knight, “Mrs. Knights giving up the Godmersham Estate to Edward was no such prodigious act of Generosity after all it seems for she has reserved herself an income out of it still;–this ought to be known, that her conduct may not be over-rated.–I rather think Edward shows the most Magnanimity of the two, in accepting her Resignation with such Incumbrances.”  (Austen’s own spelling and punctuation.)  Seems to be commenting on the transition of Edward’s formal taking over the estate as well as Mrs. Knight’s yearly annuity of two thousand pounds which he must pay, but more so on their public and private personas and actions around this matter, which seems to be an ongoing issue of concern of the sisters for their brother.  Not suggesting here that they are concerned for Edward supporting or sheltering them, although he would ultimately provide the Chawton cottage for them.

Austen continues this letter with a little update that she is feeling more and has not had to recruit Mrs. Austen just yet, “The more I write, the better my Eye gets, so I shall at least keep on till it is quite well, before I give up my pen to my Mother.”  (Austen’s own punctuation.)

And so Austen describes the ball with all of her keen observations and touches of wicked wit: “Mrs. Bramston was very civil, kind & noisy.–I spent a very pleasant evening chiefly among the Manydown party.–There was the same kind of supper as last Year, & the same want of chairs.– There were more Dancers than the Room could conveniently hold, which is enough to constitute a good Ball at any time.”

Also notes for Cassandra how much she danced with a little bit of resignation: “I do not think I was very much in request–. People were rather apt not to ask me till they could not help it.”

Austen also describes a possible missed connection: “There was one Gentleman, an officer of the Cheshire, a very good looking young Man, who I was told wanted very much to be introduced to me;– but he did not want it quite enough to take much trouble in effecting it, We could never bring it about.”  Austen seems disappointed writing to Cassandra, noting how the introduction was needed — I am presuming to have it go forward, and perhaps to dancing or conversation, but just did not happen.

Continues to update her older sister about the ball, while chiding their brother, “Charles never came!–Naughty Charles.”

Continues on with a wrap up of the ball and related news of the attendees, before Austen quips: “Miss Debary has replaced your two sheets of Drawing paper, with two of superior size & quality; so I do not grudge her of having them at all now.”

Austen then relays news of a couple of recent marriages before stating: “I do not wonder at your wanting to read first impressions again, so seldom as you have gone through it, & that so long ago.”  This is an interesting reference to early draft manuscript of what would ultimately become Austen’s Pride and Prejudice.  From Austen’s letter here, it seems Cassandra it seems to have an ongoing interest in the story and wanted to read and perhaps comment on it again.

There is no dwelling on her literary work here, Austen continues the letter, going back to more perhaps troubling domestic matters: “I am much obliged to you for meaning to leave my old petticoat behind You; I have long secretly wished it might be done, but had not the courage to make the request.”

Austen includes some local, business news as well: “The partnership between Jeffreys boomer & Legge is dissolved.” This was a banking partnership in Basingstoke, although the notes, do not clarify if the Austens were personally impacted, but apparently it was big enough neighborhood news for Jane to include it to Cassandra in this letter.

Austen closes with well wishes: “I wish you Joy of your Birthday twenty times over.”  And then adds at the very end an apology: “Do not be angry with me for not filing my Sheet–” Perhaps because she was still feeling ill Austen did not use the last page of the letter entirely which was unusual because paper was so expensive, people wrote on every inch, plus per the notes, Cassandra would still have to pay the same amount of postage for an empty sheet.

All notes, cites to: Jane Austen’s Letters, collected and edited by Deidre LeFaye, Fourth Edition, Oxford University Press, 2011.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Letter to Cassandra, Friday 28 December 1798–“This letter is to be dedicated entirely to Good News.”

Just days after Christmas, Jane Austen is writing to her older sister Cassandra, who is still away visiting at their brother Edward’s estate Godmersham Park in Kent.

Austen begins this rather short letter with another brother’s career update: “Frank is made.–He was yesterday raised to the Rank of Commander, & appointed to the Petterel Sloop, now at Gibraltar.–A Letter from Daysh has just announced this, & as it is confirmed by a very friendly one from Mr. Matthew to the same effect transcribing one from Admiral Gambier to the General, We have no reason to suspect the truth of it.” Per the notes there is a little extended family connection going on here, per the notes, General Matthew is the father of James Austen’s first wife and his niece Louisa the wife of the Admiral Lord Gambier.

This is followed by a little of Austen’s wicked wit with even more news: “As soon as you have cried a little for Joy, you may go on, & learn farther that the India House have taken Captn Austen’s Petition into Consideration–this comes from Daysh & likewise that Lieut. Charles John Austen is now removed to the Tamer Frigate.–We cannot find out where the Tamer is, but I hope we shall now see Charles here at all Events.”  (Austen’s own abbreviations and underlines.)  Austen codifies all this with: “This letter is to be dedicated entirely to Good News.”

She then moves onto household matters, “If you will send my father an account of your Washing & Letter expenses & c., he will send You a draft for the amount of it, as well as for your next quarter, & for Edward’s Rent.”  (Austen’s own spelling and punctuation.)

The wit returns with a bit of a sisterly rebuke: “If you don’t buy a muslin Gown now not he strength of this Money, & Frank’s promotion I shall never forgive You.–”

Reading these letters it is a quite one-sided because I haven’t seen Cassandra’s responses, but it seems to me of the two sisters, she was the more thrifty and economizing, while Jane often bought more textiles for clothing and supplies for caps.  I don’t think that Austen was trying to be more fashionable than her older sister, but it seems she felt more comfortable spending money on these items than her sister did.  Cassandra it seems did not spend much on herself, recalling from other letters, Jane Austen saying she should buy herself some drawing paper, and at times Jane just updating her that she went ahead and made the purchases for Cassandra.  Perhaps this was just the natural order or understanding between them.  But it would be interesting to know about Cassandra’s feeling on her end, if this annoyed or endeared her younger sister Jane to her, etc.

Austen then includes social update, “Mrs. LeFroy has just sent me world that Lady Dorchester means to invite me to her Ball on the 8th of January which tho’ an humble Blessing compared with what the last page records, I do not consider as any Calamity.”

Then Austen summarizes the happy news of their brothers in closing:  “I cannot write any more now, but I have written enough to make you very happy, & therefore may safely conclude.”

All notes and cites to Jane Austen’s Letters, 4th Edition collected and edited by Deirdre Le Faye, Oxford University Press, 2011.

 

 

 

 

 

Letter to Cassandra Monday 24-Wed. 26, December 1798.

This letter written by Jane Austen from her home in Steventon to her older sister Cassandra, who is away visiting at their brother Edward’s Godmersham Park estate in Kent is full of family news as well as details of holiday events, plus a lot of “sisterly affection.”  This letter is a good example of the close relationship between the two sisters and their writing and sharing information with each other of their individual and daily experiences.

Austen begins this letter with news about one of the seafaring Austen brother’s Frank, with details about posts and plans of an imminent promotion with a bit of detour, “There!–I may now finish my letter, & go & hang myself, for I am I sure I can neither write nor do anything which will not appear insipid to you after this.–Now I really think he will soon be made, & only wish we could communicate or fore-knowledge of the Event, to him when it principally concerns.”  This is a little bit cryptic but I’m presuming perhaps part of the code between the sisters in sharing hopes and dreams for their brother and not wanting to jinx anything, but the intrigue continues: “Your cheif wish is now ready to be accomplished; & could Lord Spencer give happiness to Martha at the same time, what a joyful heart he would make of Yours!”  (Austen’s own spelling.)  Per the notes, Cassandra and Jane were both trying to do a bit of matchmaking here for their friend Martha Lloyd, which ironically did not take until about 30 years later.  In 1806, Frank first married Mary Gibson and had eleven children with her (six sons and five daughters).  However, Mary passed away in July 1823, and Frank married Martha in in July of 1828.

This letter then takes a turn back here, to more news of Frank, and his upcoming commission, before Austen gives Cassandra an update on Mrs. Austen, “I returned from Manydown this morning, & found my Mother certainly in no respect worse than I left here.–She does not like the cold Weather, but that we cannot help.”

From there, Austen gives Cassandra an update on her visit and the people she met, “Our Ball was very thin, but by no means unpleasant.”  Jane Austen gives her older sister a pretty good account of the meet and the greet, plus a little update on the Rev, John Calland, per the notes, Rector of Bentworth near Alton, “Mr. Calland, who appeared as usual with his hat in his hand, & stood every now & then behind Catherine & me to be talked to & abused for not dancing.–We teized him however into it last last;– I was very glad to see him again after so long a separation, & he was altogether rather the Genius & Flirt of the Evening,–He enquired after You.”  (Spelling and capitalization are Austen’s own).

Again, per the notes regarding Mr. Calland: “his attachment to his hat are well known to the Austens.”  Interesting to note, Austen’s inclusion to Cassandra of his attendance, being teased about not dancing, then peer-pressured into it and then being thought of as a “Genius” and “Flirt” of the evening.  Wondering if there was some sort of love interest here, since Austen particularly noted, that he enquired after Cassandra and she specifically relied that back to her sister.  As well as just the idea of teasing an eligible man for not dancing, perhaps this was something Austen and/or other’s did and naturally fit into the characters of her fictional work, most notably Mr. Darcy — who is later called out by Elizabeth for his past refusal to dance, when male partners were short, etc.

Austen then recounts how she danced all 20 dances, as well as noting, “My black Cap was openly admired by Mrs. Lefroy & secretly I imagine by everybody else in the room.”  This is followed by a break and a date designation of Tuesday, with the receipt of Cassandra’s letter and news from Kent: “I thank you for your long letter, which I will endeavour to deserve by writing the rest of this as closely as possible.–I am full of joy at much of your information: that you should have been to a Ball, & have danced at it & supped with the Prince.”  Per the notes, Cassandra’s ball included the attendance of HRH Major-General Prince William-Frederick of Gloucester, who was in Kent via military duties.  So Cassandra was out and about, and per the notes, Ashford is country town about 7 miles from Godmersham, and the balls were usually held at the Saracen’s Head, which was the coaching inn.

Austen continues her letter in reply with discussing wardrobe options an improvements, although right the middle of it, Austen pauses, commenting again on news from Cassandra that Edward, their wealthy brother has been ill, “Poor Edward! It is very hard that he who has everything else in the World that he can with for, should not have good health too.–”

Which leads to another update on their mother’s health, “My Mother’s Spirits are not affected by her complication of disorders; on the contrary they are altogether as good as ever; nor are you to suppose that these maladies are often thought of.–She has at times had a tendency towards another which always releives her, & that is, a gouty swelling & sensation about the ancles.”  (Austen’s own underline and spelling.)

Austen returns to her joy about Cassandra’s experience at the Ashford ball, discussions about wardrobe, repairing, repurposing and perhaps donating certain items. before noting to Cassandra, “I am glad to hear such a good account of Harriet Bridges; she goes on now as young Ladies of 17 ought to do; admired & admiring; in a much more rational way than her three elder Sisters, who had so little of that kind of Youth.”  Per the notes, the three elder Bridges sisters: “had all married straight from the schoolroom, and thereby assumed domestic and maternal responsibilities at a very early age.”  This is a little telling again, at Austen’s view of life and marriage, and marrying for love and not for domestic security.

She then returns to updating Cassandra on her activities, “I was to have dined at Deane to day, but the weather is so cold that I am not sorry to be kept at home by the appearance of Snow.”  As well as possibly lamenting some upcoming plans, “We are to have Company to dinner on friday; the three Digweeds & James.–We shall be a nice silent  party I suppose.”  The tone here tends to land a little flat, like she’s really not all that thrilled about it but duly relaying it to Cassandra.

Although this letter diverts again, “Seize upon the Scissors as soon as you possibly can  on receipt of this.  I only fear your being too late to secure the prize.”  This is followed by a bit of a cryptic update concerning Charles and efforts in what seems again, to be related to a posting and naval career issues, before Austen then sends a directive from Mrs. Austen, “My Mother wants to know whether Edward has ever made the Hen House which they planned together.”

With another nod to Martha and scheduling, Austen then concludes, but not before she apologizes to Cassandra for the inferiority of her letter, “You deserve a longer letter than this; but it my unhappy fate seldom to treat people so well as they deserve.”  The Wednesday postscript she added gives Cassandra a bit more news. “The Snow came to nothing yesterday, so I did go to Deane, & returned home at 9 o’clock at night in the little carriage–& without being very cold.–Miss Debary dines with us on friday as well as the Gentlemen.”

All cites to Jane Austen’s Letters, Fourth Edition, edited by Deirdre Le Faye, Oxford University Press, 2011.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Letter to Cassandra Tues. 18 — Wed. 19, December 1798

Per the notes, this letter also follows several that are missing in Jane Austen’s correspondence time line.  Austen writes to her older sister Cassandra from their home in Steventon in the weeks before Christmas, and apparently Cassandra is away visiting their brother Edward at his large home Godmersham Park.  From the opening it sounds like Austen was missing Cassandra very much, “Your letter came quite as soon as I expected, and so your letters will always do, because I have made it a rule not to expect them till they come, in which I think consult the ease of us both.”

The whole, making a rule reference — sounds like Austen is trying to assure her sister she is not hanging on her every letter, which sort of reflects both her missing Cassandra and confirming again to her older sister that she knows she is busy and doesn’t expect her to write all the time.

Next item up is a reference to some sort of legal business for Cassandra, per the notes perhaps the legacy (pension) left to Cassandra by her fiancé Tom Fowle who perished en route to a position in the West Indies, and then Austen goes right into planning for winter clothes and accessories, “I shall keep my ten pounds too to wrap myself up in next winter.” (Underline by Austen.) Per the notes, the ten pounds Austen cites here may either being their Christmas allowance from her father Mr. Austen, or a gift from Mrs. Knight — their extended family member, who adopted their brother Edward as her male heir.  Continues describing a black velvet bonnet in particular, and possible changes to it and other hats, and also she seems to be asking Cassandra for input on in trying to update a hat to one similar to one fashionable at that time, per the notes references a red poppy color, or perhaps otherwise try to save them and not replace them to avoid more expense.

Austen then talks about one of their seafaring brothers, Charles, “I am sorry that our dear Charles begins to feel the Dignity of Ill-usage. — My father will write to Admiral Gambier.”  Per the notes, it seems that Charles was trying to transfer to another post/larger ship.  Apparently there are some ideas being discussed to help Charles with his situation in the Navy, plus some scheduling plans, and apparently there was a bit of a glitch going on, “I cannot approve of your scheme of writing to him (which you communicated to [p.2] a few nights ago) to request him to come hoe & convey you to Steventon. — To do you justice however, You had some doubts of the propriety of such a measure yourself.” (Underline and page cite are Austen’s own.)

This letter then goes onto the topic of their nephew George (Edward’s son aka itty Dordy), who seems to be generally regularly discussed back and forth between the sisters in their letters.  Austen has routinely sent regards to her little nephew with comments that are sort of anxious that he will forget her. “I am very much obliged to my dear little George for his messages, for his Love at least; — his Duty I suppose was only in some consequence of some hint of my favourable intentions towards him from his Father or Mother,”  (Underlines are Austen’s own.)  Austen also includes a reference to the tradition of someone having a “dish of tea” on their birthday, and again per the notes, the saucers were so large during that time period, it was deemed socially fine to drink out of it — the idea of saying a “dish of tea” was a more popular expression than a “cup of tea.”  Wrapping up discussing their nephew little George, Austen adds, “Give my best Love to him.”  Before relaying news of a morning visit by neighborhoods to Steventon, by Mr. Holder and Mr. Harwood.

Austen then informs Cassandra she received a note about a circulating library from a Mrs. Martin, which was an invitation to subscribe to her collection, “which opens the 14th of January, & my name, or rather Yours is accordingly given.”  Circulating libraries were popular during Jane Austen’s time, and they cost money to be able to borrow the books or “subscribe.” Not sure about this, I’m wondering if Cassandra would be listed as a subscriber because she is an oldest sister, or simply because Jane Austen just could not afford her own library subscription at the time, but the notes do not offer a cite or any clarification here. Austen continues in this letter, “My Mother finds the Money — Mary subscribes too, which I am glad of, but hardly expected. — As an inducement to subscribe Mrs. Martin tells us that her Collection is not to consist only of Novels, but of every kind of Literature &c &c — She might have spared this pretension to our family who are great Novel-readers & not ashamed of being so; — but it was necessary I suppose to the self-consequence of half her Subscribers.”  (Underlines and &c are Austen’s own.)

Austen doesn’t seem to really have a great opinion of Mrs. Martin,  mostly for Mrs. Martin’s pitch that she was offering more than novels in this circulating library collection.  Chiefly because during that time period, novels were sort of looked down upon as sort of lighter or trash reading. To make a comparative popular culture reference today, I guess it would be a similar social-type stigma, if someone said they only watched reality/staged television shows and nothing else what so ever.  My take on this is: 1) on one Austen seems to be saying to Cassandra that she thinks Mrs. Martin is being pretentious in advertising the library will be more diverse with different types of books and that is fine, but Mrs. Martin could have spared this pitch to the Austens because they all as she said love to read novels and I guess everyone knows this about them, but 2) then Austen acknowledges to Cassandra, perhaps Mrs. Martin is just doing a much larger sales pitch to make other people happy and get more subscribers.

After the discussion of the subscription library, Austen returns to neighborhood and family news updates relaying them all to Cassandra, including nightly rituals at Steventon in comparison to a large house like Godmersham, “We dine now at half after Three, & have done dinner I suppose before you begin — We drink tea at half after six.  I am afraid you will despise us.  — My Father reads Cowper to us in the evening, to which I listen when I can.”  Austen then sets down a series of questions to Cassandra asking her how they are passing the evenings at Godmersham, before going into an obligatory update about their mother, concerning Mrs. Austen’s health and ongoing issues.  Austen continues with updates with the Lefroy and Digweed families, close friends and neighbors, including James Digweed being kicked by a young horse and getting a nasty cut.

Then Austen circles back to her cap and situation with the current fashion with updates to hats and gowns, as well as more news and her frustration in making plans for her own travels and visits, “Perhaps I may stay at Manydown as long as Monday, but not longer.  — Martha sends me word that she is too busy to write to me now, & but for your letter, I should have supposed her deep in the study of Medicine preparatory to their removal from Ibthrop.”  Apparently having learned from Cassandra’s letter that Martha wrote to Cassandra and not here, claiming she was busy — Austen was perhaps annoyed that their dear friend Martha had not wrote back personally to her, and throws a bit of wicked slide at Martha’s being “too busy” as if Martha were a medical student — the idea and or concept which was nearly impossible during this time period.

Another visit seems to be in the works but Austen does not seem to be looking forward to it, “The letter to Gambier goes to day. — I expect a very stupid Ball, there will be nobody worth dancing with, & nobody worth talking to but Catherine; for I believe Mrs. Lefroy will not be there; Lucy is to go with Mr. Russell.”  Per the notes, most likely Jane Austen, referencing “Madame Lefroy,” her friend and mentor who died in a tragic riding accident which inspired Austen to write a memorial poem four years after her death.  Madame Lefroy was also married/a connection to Tom Lefroy, Austen’s “Irish Friend.” Per the notes, “the earliest English Lefroys were Huguenots (French Protestants cast out of France), who came to this country in the late sixteenth (16th) century and settled in Kent.” (Notes in parenthesis are my own.)

Continues to sort of lament different circumstances here to her older sister, venting a little bit perhaps about their economical situation and those of their friends in Steventon, “People get so horridly poor & economical in this part of the World, that I have no patience with them. — Kent is the only place for happiness, Everybody is rich there; — I must do similar justice however to the Windsor neighborhood.”

This is followed by telling Cassandra that two sheets of her drawing paper were given away, and Cassandra may want to restock on drawing paper when she goes to town.  Presuming here Austen means London.  Austen closes this letter by saying she has finally heard from Martha, not citing a letter and also their other Naval brother Frank, “all well, & nothing particular.”

All notes to Jane Austen’s Letters, collected and edited by Deidre LeFay, 4th edition, Oxford University Press, 2011.