Letter to Cassandra — 24 October 1798

Here, Jane Austen is quite literally: “on the road again”  traveling with her parents home.

This letter was written from the Bull and George, “a coaching inn,” that was located in Dartford, Kent.  Per the notes, Dartford was originally a market town with manufacturing 19 miles southeast of London, and “the first post-town on the Dover road; now nearly part of Greater London.”

Jane Austen is reporting news, details and mishaps to her older sister Cassandra, as they traveled through Kent, starting with: “You have already heard from Daniel, I conclude, in what excellent time we reached and quitted Sittingbourne, and how very well my mother bore her journey thither.”

Two observations here: 1) the Austens had left and were returning home but Cassandra apparently stayed behind for a longer visit, and 2) Daniel via the notes, was very likely a coachman from Godmersham estate owned by Austen’s brother Edward Austen Knight (EAK),  and apparently Daniel worked for EAK for quite some time — per the notes: “possibly the Daniel Boys who was buried at Godmersham on 22 December 1835 aged 73.”

Again via the notes, — Sittingbourne is a “country town” in Kent, 46 miles southeast of London, and 16 miles from the Godmersham estate.

Mrs. Austen seems to wax and wane in her traveling and health complaints, as Austen notes about their mother: “I am now able to send you a continuation of the same good account of her.  She was very little fatigued on her arrival at this place, has been refreshed by a comfortable dinner, and now seems quite stout.”

Per previously reading the notes to these letters, and paraphrasing other Regency era references — during this time period, the word “stout” was used to convey “healthy” or “being of good general health and nourishment.”

Their visit at the country town of Sittingbourne was short: “It wanted five minutes of twelve when we left Sittingbourne, from whence we had a famous pair of horses, which took us to Rochester in an hour and a quarter; the postboy seemed determined to show my mother that Kentish drivers were not always tedious and really drove as fast as Cax.

Per the notes, Cax is probably a misprint or a misreading of Cox or Cook’s which was a coach company — running a route from Salisbury to London and back. Another example of Austen’s wicked wit here — basically writing to Cassandra about how they had a crazy-fast driver, in comparing him to the London route drivers — which I guess had a reputation for speed at the expense of safety — in any case, Cassandra I presume would have gotten the reference and or joke.

Austen’s letter then gives another update on Mrs. Austen’s well being:  “My mother took some of her bitters at Ospringe, and some more at Rochester, and she ate some bread several times.”

Apparently there were several inns located in Dartford, Kent, during the time Jane Austen visited during her travels, “but the best was the Bull (later called the Royal Victoria and Bull), opposite was a smaller establishment, the Bull and George.”

Austen then details their quarters at the Bull and George, which again was the smaller inn, located in Dartford, which she noted, resulted in some compromise, “We have got apartments up two pairs of stairs, as we could not otherwise be accommodated with a sitting-room and bed chambers on the same floor, which we wished to be.”

And then kind of a major crisis:  “I should have begun my letter soon after our arrival but for a little adventure which prevented me.  After we had been here a quarter of an hour it was discovered that my writing and dressing boxes had been by accident put into a chaise which was just packing off as we came in, and were driven away towards Gravesend in their way to the West Indies.  No part of my property could have been such a prize before, for in my writing-box was all my worldly wealth, 7l, and my dear Harry’s deputation.”  (The underline is Austen’s own notation.)

Okay so her writing box was put on the wrong coach en route to the West Indies no less.  Austen seems to be upset more about the money kept in the box, and EAK apparently had issued a letter to allow their neighbor Harry Digweed back home — giving Henry the right to shoot on the Steventon estate — so Austen was acting as a courier and transporting this official letter.

Although I think the worldly or historical impact would have been the loss of her literary work in the writing-box.  Austen seems more matter of fact — fixated on the loss of the money.  Luckily, Mr. George Nottley (via the notes could have been Knottley), the landlord of the George & Bull inn in Dartford stepped in, “immediately despatched a man and horse after the chase, and in half an hour’s time I had the pleasure of being rich as ever; they were only got about two or three miles off.”  Phew crisis avoided.  (The spelling ‘despatched’ is Austen’s own.)

Austen continues noting the journey has been pretty pleasant and goes into accounts and exchanges about the weather, and a little account about their dad via a little book and reading update, “My father is now reading the ‘Midnight Bell,’ which he has got from the library, and my mother is siting by the fire.”  The notes describe this book as: The Midnight Bell, a German  Story, Founded on Incidents in Real Life, by Francis Lathom (1798), with a reference to Austen’s Northanger Abbey, chapter six (6).  So another connection from Austin’s letter to a novel she wrote. It’s unclear though which library Austen is referring to here in this letter — thinking possibly it was from the library at Godmersham or from a lending library back at home — although I think the former is more likely as they were leaving EAK’s estate and traveling back to Steventon.

Austen closes this letter with the uncertainty of their scheduling and route home, and noting the strong opinions of the inn’s landlord which differ from the Austens, “Our route to-morrow is not determined.  We have none of us much inclination for London, and if Mr. Nottley will give us leave, I think we shall go to Staines through Croydon and Kingston, which will be much pleasanter than any other way; but he is decidedly for Clapham and Battersea.”  (The spelling ‘to-morrow is Austen’s own.)

The very last line: “God bless you all!”  And then she adds a postscript, referencing the nickname of EAK’s second son George, “I flatter myself that itty Dordy will not forget me at least under a week.  Kiss him for me.”  (The underline is Austen’s own.) Think this is a reference to why Cassandra remained, most likely to help with EAK’s children.

Addendum here per the notes, in this collection of Austen’s letters: “Letter missing here, dated Thursday 25 October 1798.”  Which denotes a missing letter in chronological order, etc.

All notes unless otherwise noted are to: Jane Austen’s Letters, Fourth Edition, Collected and Edited by Deirdre Le Fay, Oxford University Press 2011.













Letter to Cassandra–Sunday 18 September 1796–Doubt & Deliberation

Jane Austen begins her letter from Rowling to her older sister Cassandra home in Steventon with this bit of news: “This morning has been spent in Doubt & Deliberation; in forming plans, and removing Difficulties, for it ushered in the Day with an Event which I had not intended should take place so soon for a week.”

In this letter, there was both good and bad news to relay to Cassandra.  Their brother Frank had received an appointment to a ship, and therefore, the delay/difficulties were in the scheduling of Frank escorting Jane Austen to her next destination.  Per Austen’s post script and the notes the ship Frank was newly assigned to was a frigate called the Triton.

Austen in leaving Rowling, was supposed to travel for a visit with Mary Pearson and her family, before they would leave together for Stevenson, but leaving Rowling early via Frank was an issue. Austen was not sure this would line up with the Pearson’s schedule, and there was an issue on confirming this change: “I wrote to Miss P — on friday, & hoped to receive an answer from her this morning, which would have rendered everything smooth & easy, and would have enabled us to leave this place tomorrow, as Frank on first receiving his Appointment to do so.”

Seems Austen did not hear back from Miss Mary Pearson and plans as she continued to write/describe were unsettled.  Per the notes, Mary was the eldest daughter of Captain Sir Richardson Pearson of the British Royal Navy, Lt. Governor of the Greenwich Hospital for Seaman.

Austen indulges here in a bit of her wicked wit with a bit of a confidence to her sister, “If Miss Pearson should return with me, pray be careful not to expect too much Beauty.”  And following with a little bit of a snarky reference to Mrs. Austen as well, “My Mother I am sure will be disappointed, if she does not take great care.”

Austen relays that her brother Frank had to change things around, “He remains till Wednesday merely to accommodate me.”  She adds that she had written to Ms. Pearson again and was trying to see about alternative plans with another brother, “Edward has been so good as to promise to take me to Greenwich the following Monday which was the day before fixed on, if that suits them better–”

And this letter continues: “If I have no answer at all on Tuesday, I must suppose that Mary is not at Home, & must wait till I do hear; as after having invited her to Steventon with me, it will not quite do, to go home and say no more about it.–”

Then noting perhaps Mr. Austen could also assist, “My Father will be so good to fetch home is prodigal Daughter from Town, I hope, unless he wishes me to walk the Hospitals, Enter at the Temple, or mount Guard at St. James.”  Per the notes “walk the Hospitals” is a term meaning to study medicine/become a medical student.

Austen’s tone seems to be light-light hearted and joking, but there does seem to be an underlining concern to confirm plans and prevail one or more of her brothers and father, “It will hardly be in Frank’s power to take me home; nay, it certainly will not. I shall write again as soon as I to Greenwich.”

Seems to be anxious awaiting from Miss Pearson relaying to Cassandra alternative plans proposed and shot down by her brothers.  Apparently Austen felt bad the letter was dominated by scheduling issues and schemes she did include this one other tidbit of news: ‘Mary is brought to bed of a Boy; both doing very well.  I shall leave you to guess what Mary I mean–”  Per the notes this is presumed a reference to Mary Robinson a maidservant at Rowling.  So perhaps this was a bit of gossip and Austen was a bit guilty to indulge for she closed the letter with, “How ill I have written. I begin to hate myself.”

All notes/cites to: Jane Austen’s Letters, Fourth Edition, Collected and Edited by Deirdre LeFaye, Oxford University Press 2011.


Letter to Cassandra, Thurs. 15-Friday 16, September 1796

In this letter to her older sister Casandra at home in Steventon, Jane Austen continues to write from Rowling, giving a full account of social activities including: “dining at Nackington, returning by Moonlight, and everything quite in Stile, in to mention Mr. Claringbould’s funeral.”  Per the notes the Claringboulds are described as “a farming family, at Goodnestone, Kent.”  Austen goes onto say that their brother Edward was considering taking “Claringbould” as a name, but: “that scheme is over” —  apparently this is well before Edward became Edward Austen Knight.  And apparently this “scheme” was also monetary in nature, and did not work out too well because Jane Austen continued, “nothing was said on the subject, and unless it is in your power to assist you Brother with five or six Hundred pounds, he must entirely give up the idea.”

Jane Austen cheerfully describes their visit to Nackington, home in Kent of the Milles family, giving Cassandra a round down of their house tour, including a portrait painted by Reynolds.

Glimpses here of her wicked wit abound:  “Miss Fletcher and I were very thick, but I am the thinnest of the two — She wore her purple Muslin, which is pretty enough, tho’ it does not become her complexion.  There are two Traits in her Character which are pleasing; namely, she admires Camilla & drinks no cream in her Tea.”

Sort of a vibe of eavesdropping here between sisters, I’m not saying that Jane Austen is being catty, rather she is painting a portrait for her older sister with words, and apparently two standards were very important by which she did judge new acquaintances: by the writers they admired, and how they took their tea.

The letter relays the rest of the particulars of their visit to Nackington, as well as the carriage ride home and large swath of news concerning both the Field and Digweed families.  Once news of neighbors of news is finished,  Jane Austen adds news about their brothers, and discusses travel and scheduling.  Just shy of two hundred years later, pouring over this correspondence it may seem unlikely, but this was again a large part of her life, which all had to be arranged and approved by their male relatives, “I want to go in a Stage Coach, but Frank will not let me.”

Austen closes this letter with orders for shopping and errands, “If anybody wants anything in Town, they must send their Commissions to Frank, as I shall merely pass thro’ it. –”  Followed by a referenced to buy candles?  “The Tallow Chandler is Pennington, at the Crown & Beehive Charles Street, Covent Garden.”  However, she wrapped this correspondence up by assuring Cassandra, “Buy Mary Harrison’s Gown by all means.  You shall have mine for ever so much money, tho’ if I am tolerably rich when I get home, I shall like it very much myself.”

All notes to Jane Austen’s Letters, Fourth Edition, Collected and Edited by Deirdre LeFaye, Oxford University Press, 2011.  The underline emphasis was not added but was retyped as it appeared in the text.

Letter to Cassandra 1 September 1796 from Rowling

In this letter to Cassandra at Steventon, Jane Austen is writing from Rowling, where her brother Edward and his family were living at that time, before moving to Godmersham Park.  Austen opens this letter, thanking Cassandra for her recent correspondence which seems to have been both newsy and entertaining for her, “I could die of laughter of it, as they used to say at school.”

Delving next into scheduling, “… we have been very near returning to Steventon so early as next week.”  But Jane Austen quickly details that these plans have changed, as her brother Henry will be the delay for a visit to his physician in Yarmouth.  “I am sorry for it, but what can I do?”  The tone seems to pervade with some frustration toward their brother’s planning or changing of plans as she then details, Henry’s plan for a visit to his physician in Yarmouth because he was still not feeling well or recovering from an ailment, but then, noting his plan to take a leave (from the militia), to go to Godmersham for shooting.  “… I shall hardly be at Steventon before the middle of that month; but if you cannot do without me. I could return, I suppose with Frank if he ever goes back.”  Then noting, that Frank has been learning and is duly obsessed with “turning” a type of handicraft using a lathe to rotate metal, wood, etc.  Per the notes on this letter, reference back that Austen’s brother Frank being very well versed at this type of work, similar to Austen’s character of Captain Harville in Persuasion.  Austen notes near the end of the letter, Frank actually completed a burn churner for Fanny (Edward’s daughter).  To note and I will repeat, there are multiple Fanny’s to keep track of in these letters and in Austen’s family/friends circle.

Continues noting a response from Cassandra to a previous letter — which isn’t specified although Austen seemed concerned and worried: “I am sorry that you found such a conciseness in the strains of my first letter.  I must endeavor to make your amends for it, when we meet, by some elaborate details, which I shall shortly begin composing.  Find it intriguing — was her plan to fill in Cassandra about personal life details or since she used the word “composing” was this an exchange over some type of literary work Austen was working on and incorporating or editing in after some feedback or concerns from Cassandra.  Once again give a sort of heavy virtual sigh — wishing I could reach Cassandra’s side of their correspondence.

Austen quips right along talking about a new gown that wasn’t holding up well wear-wise, the weather around a Godmersham visit, and including a little bit of her wicked wit.  While she may have enjoyed children once  they were older, I don’t think she was particularly a fan of babies, after relaying that Edward Knight and his wife were well she added, “I have taken little George once in my arms since I have been here.  Which I thought very kind.”

Skipping past to Edward’s eldest daughter Fanny and admiration of Cassandra’s beads.  This is the first Fanny of this letter.  Austen then includes a reference to Camilla by Burney. Austen returns to traveling, sort of rephrasing her frustration about the delays ” … I am very happy here, though I shall be glad to get home by the end of the month.  Austen notes she will probably be accompanied by Miss Pearson — notes state she was the daughter of Captain Sir Richard Pearson of the Royal Navy.

Cheerfully she ribs brother Charles’ — noting his previous correspondence from Cork, which apparently resulted in his receiving two letter from his sisters.  Austen then details news of what she had been doing and people she had seen — including Louisa Bridges, from a family of Baronets, Goodnestone, Kent, and also Fanny (second Fanny mentioned) or Mrs. Cage, here not Edward’s daughter/her niece, but the daughter of Edward’s brother in law Sir Brook Bridges III.  Noting a visit from Lady Hales  and her daughters — baronets of Bekesbourne, again with her wicked wit, “Caroline has not grown at all coarser than she was, nor Harriet at all more delicate.”  Austen continues apparently responding to Cassandra’s previous correspondence regarding their visiting music master at Steventon, “I am so to hear so good an account of Mr. Charde and only fear that my long absence may occasion his relapse.”  Duly notes her sister of trying to practice while away on this visit.

Now another interesting note the mention of Mary Robinson — via the notes “presumably a maid at Rowling.”  One of my Bookcrossing friends, often notes how servants are never really mentioned in Austen’s novels.  Only noted/mentioned as background objects, much like settings or furniture, and while I agree with her Austen doesn’t include servants/people in service as major part of her narratives, personally I think that may have been true to the contemporary style in which she was writing, that these details just were part of the tradition, canon and social structure.  So really find it intriguing that Austen is including this event in her correspondence with Cassandra — from the tone it sounds like something happened with Mary Robinson, Austen tried to ask Edward and his wife about it, or get some further details, but apparently this was unsuccessful:  “I have heard nothing of Mary Robinson since I have been [here]. I expect to be well scolded for daring to doubt, whenever the subject is mentioned.”  Whatever when down, it seems like it was very important for Austen to keep Cassandra in the loop about it.

This letter closes with mentions of Anna’s gloves (full disclosure I’m not sure which Anna this referencing in the Austen circle, I’m presuming one of many nieces), and their mother’s handkerchief — apparently both misplaced and she was supposed to make inquiries for Anna and to look for her mother.  Austen details being busy helping to make shirts for Edward, notes birds at Rowling, and again thanks Cassandra for news/accounts of Mr. Lamprey and J. Lovett–could not find these names in the notes. Again, presuming they were neighbors of some sort and Austen was responding to Cassandra’s previous correspondence/accounts of them from Steventon.  All notes/cites are from: Jane Austen’s Letters, 4th edition, collected and edited by Deirdre Le Faye, Oxford University Press, 2011.





Letter to Cassandra, 23 August 1796

This letter or short note, was sent from Jane Austen, writing from Cork Street (in London), but per the notes Cassandra’s address is missing but mostly likely her older sister was at Steventon. Starting with the first line: “Here I am once more in this Scene of Dissipation & vice, and I begin already to find my Morals  corrupted –”  Here we get a typical glimpse of the familiarity of correspondence between these sisters, plus a dose of Austen’s wicked wit.

Jane Austen duly relies news about the weather, specifically the heat, their arrival time, the departures of their brothers Edward and Frank on their new ventures including that Henry had not been at the races.  She then closes with “God Bless You — I must leave off, for we are going out. She had previously mentioned: “We are to be at Astley’s tonight.  Per the notes, this was Astley’s Amphitheatre, near Westminster Bridge: “‘a circus for horsemanship  and other feats of strength and agility,'” also referenced in Emma.

All cites to Jane Austen’s Letters, Forth Edition, edited by Deirdre LeFaye, Oxford University Press, 2011.